private equity glossary

A PE firm typically wants to triple the size of its investment over a period of four to five years . This is the person at the PE firm who is responsible for buying your business. They then sitting on your board, normally for the duration of the investment. Their fortunes are closely tied to yours – they bought you and their reputation is on the line. Contrast with a Trade acquirer which might be interested in you for strategic reasons.

Claim DilutionA reduction in the likelihood that one or more of the firm’s claimants will be fully repaid, including time value of money considerations. Cash PositionThe amount of cash available to a company at a given point in time. The year over year growth rate applied to an investment or other aspect of a firm using a base amount. Burn RateThe rate at which a company expends net cash over a certain period, usually a month. Best EffortsAn offering in which the investment banker agrees to distribute as much of the offering as possible, and return any unsold shares to the issuer. AllocationThe amount of securities assigned to an investor, broker, or underwriter in an offering. An allocation can be equal to or less than the amount indicated by the investor during the subscription process depending on market demand for the securities. A security that gives the holder the option to purchase a company’s stock at a predetermined price for a specified period. An amount recorded during negotiations to reflect a historical analysis of the working capital requirements of a target company.

  • Although an IRR calculation result is often similar to the Time Weighted Return (“TWR”) used in the public markets, they are two different performance calculations.
  • The IRR is calculated as an annualized effective compounded rate of return measure and takes the time value of money into account.
  • Usually, venture capital firms invest in companies that they think will grow very quickly in the near future due to, for example, some sort of innovative technology that the company is developing.
  • IRR is the approved calculation for private equity performance by the CFA Institute.
  • The performance calculation that is used for private equity investments.
  • Venture capital funds usually take an ownership stake in the companies in which they invest and hope to sell that stake at a much higher valuation after, typically, five to ten years.

The conversion ration equals the par value of the convertible security divided by the conversion price. Collar AgreementAgreed upon adjustments in the number of shares offered in a stock-for-stock exchange to account for price fluctuations before the completion of the deal. ClawbackA clawback obligation represents the general partner’s promise that, over the life of the fund, the managers will not receive a greater share of the fund’s distributions than they bargained for. When triggered, the clawback will require that the general partner return to the fund’s limited partners an amount equal to what is determined to be “excess” distributions.

Private Equity Firms

Venture capital provided to start-up firms that want to test a concept or develop a new product. Stock price with the rights attached to the stock, in a rights offering. Implied interest rate in a repurchase agreement, calculated based upon the difference between the price at which equity glossary a security is bought and the price at which it will be sold back. A portfolio of the underlying asset and the riskless asset that has the same cash flows as an option. Preliminary prospectus issued by a firm going public, while the registration is being reviewed by the SEC.

Investment vehicle through which investors finance an entrepreneur’s efforts to locate, acquire and manage a company. Ratio of price-to-earnings divided by the expected future earnings growth rate of the company. The divestment of part of a PE fund’s holdings in a portfolio company. In an open-ended fund structure, funds can be raised at any time during the life of the fund and the fund has an indefinite term. Net invested capital consists of contributed capital, minus how to mine monero capital returned from exits and any write-downs of investment value. Also known as the investment multiple, it is the ratio of the realized and unrealized fund/equity value divided by the capital invested in the fund/company. opportunities, provides advisory services to the fund’s portfolio companies, and manages the fund’s audit and reporting processes. Investing in companies with the aim of achieving a social return component in addition to a financial return target.

private equity glossary

By executing a debt push-down, senior lenders have a direct claim on target company assets and eliminate the structural subordination of senior lenders to trade creditors. A measure of a company’s debt relative to a key metric, typically earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (debt/EBITDA). The seller receives all cash and pays off all debt of the target at the time of sale. A type of private equity glossary debt instrument that can be converted into equity or cash. Sold on to investors in various tranches with different interest rates reflecting their different riskiness. In the context of PE, funds have a finite lifespan with no redemption prior to the expiration of the fund. A mandatory agreement entered into between the company and its shareholders and filed with a government institution post-closing.

Insurance on the life of key employees which investors require the company to obtain. Document sent to LP investors by the fund that tells investors the percentage of the profits and losses of the fund that they are responsible for. When an issuer engages in a transaction that allows investors to sell their shares, which generally happens through a tender offer or an IPO. Options to purchase a company’s shares at a predetermined price, often when certain trigger events occur . Acquiring majority equity stakes in mature companies under considerable operational duress with the aim of affecting change in the company to restore profitability. Sale and purchase of interests in a PE fund or sale and purchase of equity stakes in PE-backed companies .

Financial Sponsor

An account that helps determine the net debt and working capital that will be used to establish the final price of an M&A deal according to the agreed price formula. The main entity responsible for the issuance of new equity, debt and other securities. When a fund compares its returns to the performance of similar funds. Any form of lending to a business that is collateralized or secured by a balance sheet asset. Pledged assets may include inventory, equipment or accounts receivable that will be redeemed in eos exchanges the event of default by the debtor. Cash Flow Statement A financial statement that reflects changes in balance sheet accounts and breaks the analysis down to operating, investing, and financing activities. Effect of exchange rate changes on the current income statement and the balance sheet of a firm with exposure to foreign currencies. Advertisement containing details of an initial public offering, the name of the lead investment banker, and the names of other investment bankers involved in the issue.

private equity glossary

It’s not uncommon for an asset to grow slower during the first year of PE ownership than before. In fact some companies can struggle or even go backwards in year 1 and this is a situation reported by many of my CEO colleagues in PE and a number of PE funds. An funny name for private equity glossary money that’s somewhere between bank debt and investor debt. This is no longer the case with many companies going through multiple rounds of PE ownership. Some PE firms have even been known to buy back assets that they owned previously, wanting a second spin on the wheel .

Key Private Equity Investment Strategies

MoneyTree results exclude non-US companies, non-cash investment, Buyouts and other forms of non-Venture Private Equity investments. Angel Investment and direct investment by corporations, unless they are co-investments in an otherwise qualifying round, are also excluded. The lowest amount raised for a group of funds in the selected time period. The median amount raised for a group of funds in the selected time period. The maximum equity amount invested by the firm during the time period selected. The highest amount raised for a group of funds in the selected time period. The industry a fund has invested at least 60% of its investment portfolio. The fund has made its final close, but has returned capital back to the Limited Partners.

private equity glossary

It reflects closing accounts as well as an increased or decreased price if a target company has more or less working capital than the target capital on the date of the closing accounts. A type of divestiture that creates an independent company through the sale or distribution of new shares of an existing business or division of a company. When one limited partner sells its alternative investments to another limited partner. Limited partners do this for a variety of reasons, including to adjust their asset allocation. An analysis that compares a private fund’s performance to a public benchmark or index.

Emerging Markets

There is no universal definition of net debt, which makes its definition in a LOI and SPA paramount. A financing round between senior and subordinated loans that typically includes equity-based options in the form of warrants. The amount general partners charge limited partners to operate a fund. A commonly accepted way to measure concentration within an industry, which the US Department of Justice uses to review deals for anti-trust considerations. It is calculated by finding the square how to buy basic attention token of the market share for each firm competing in a market and adding up the results, which can range from near zero to 10,000. The vetting, analyzing and assessing of individuals, companies and investors before engaging in a transaction. When the acquisition debt is transferred to the operating company rather than the company that generates the operating cash flow, if such a distinction exists. The process of raising small amounts of capital from many people to fund a venture.

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